ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ PERFECT

ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ PERFECT

Общая информация

На русский язык слово Perfect переводится «совершенное», можно переводить «законченное». Это означает, что все времена данной группы обознаачают действия которые либо уже завершились, либо которые должны будут завершиться в будущем. Иными словами, основная цель Perfect– это выразить предшествование (предпрошедшее, преднастоящее и предбудущее).

Глагол to be

Г

лагол to be в Perfect требует тех же вспомогательных глаголов, что и прочие глаголы в о временах данной группы.

ВАЖНО!

В

ремена Perfect часто используются с такими наречиями, как: just (только что); already (уже); lately (недавно); of late (в последнее время); yet (в отрицательных предложениях), однако стоит быть внимательным - большинство этих наречий используются и с другими временами и не могут служить однозначными подсказками-маркрами.

КАК ОБРАЗУЕТСЯ?

PRESENT

PAST

FUTURE

ПРАВИЛА УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ PRESENT PERFECT

1. Для выражения действия, совершившегося к настоящему моменту, результат которого имеется налицо в настоящем времени. Таким образом, говорящий обращает наше внимание на результат совершенного действия, а не на время его совершения.

Например: I have passed my exam. I'm happy. - Я сдал экзамен. Я доволен.

2. Для выражения опыта - того, что было пережито (возможно, неоднократно).

Например: I've been to London. - Я бывал в Лондоне.

3. Для выражения действия, произошедшего в еще не истекший отрезок времени (today, tonight, this week и т.д.).

Например: I've watched the film this month already. - Я уже смотрел этот фильм в этом месяце.

4. Present Perfect употребляется вместо Present Perfect Continuous с глаголами, не употребляющимися в Continuous.

"любимые" слова - for (в течение) и since (с какого-то времени)

Например: I have known him for three years. - Я знаю его три года.

Spoiler title

ПРАВИЛА УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ PAST PERFECT

1. Действие, свершившееся до определенного момента в прошлом.

Например: We had reached the station before it began to rain – Мы дошли до вокзала (Past Perfect - действие случилось раньше) до того, как начался дождь (Past Simple – действие произошло в прошлом, но позже).

! СЛЕДУЕТ ПОМНИТЬ, что время или действие, до которого совершилось действие, выраженное в Past Perfect, может быть не указано в предложении с Past Perfect, a упомянуто в другом предложении, то есть надо обращать внимание на контекст!

Например: I was going to station, it began to rain. Fortunately, I had taken an umbrella. – Я шел на станцию, начался дождь. К счастью, я взял с собой зонт (взял до того, как отправился в путь – значит, действие произошло раньше других – это Past Perfect).

2. Причина, следствие которой также лежит в прошлом и выражается прошедшим временем.

Например: Не was happy. He had passed his exams. – Он был счастлив (следствие). Он сдал свои экзамены (причина того, что он счастлив).

ПРАВИЛА УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ FUTURE PERFECT

1. Будущее действие, которое совершится до определенного момента в будущем.

Например: He will have finished his work by 7 o'clock. - Он (уже) закончит работу к семи часам. ! Ключевое слово для данного времени - BY (к какому-то времени), оно часто помогает определиться с выбором правильной глагольной формы.

* 2. (понадобится в 11 классе) Предполагаемое прошедшее действие. В таком виде иногда встречается в деловых письмах и научных статьях.

Например: You will have read about it in newspapers. - Вы, должно быть, читали об этом в газетах.

 

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