Герундий (Gerund) — одна из имеющихся в английском языке неличных форм глагола. Герундий иногда еще называют отглагольным существительным, поскольку имеет с существительными много общего. В английском языке герундий образуется посредством добавления к глаголу суффикса –ing.
Инфинитив (Infinitive) – другая безличная форма глагола в английском языке. Стандартная форма английского инфинитива образуется при помощи базовой формы глагола, которой предшествует частица to. В ряде случаев глагол употребляется без частицы to. После некоторых глаголов используется только инфинитив, после других – только герундий, а после некоторых можно употребить и то и другое. Кроме того, есть глаголы, которые будут иметь разный смысл в зависимости от того, употреблён ли после глагола герундий или инфинитив.
1) Когда говорим о цели (чтобы)
She goes there to keep fit.
2) После прилагательных:
I was happy to walk in the rain!
3) После too и enough
It’s too late to phone her.
He is old enough to watch this film.
4) После глаголов, выражающих предпочтение в ЧАСТНОЙ ситуации.
Would like/ love/ prefer/
Be loath to (не быть склонным)
I would like to have a cup of coffee.
5) После конструкции used to
He used to drive careless.
6) После конструкции to be going to
7) После модальных и близких к ним по значению, требующих за собой «to»
Have to, Ought to, Manage to, Be to, To be allowed to
8) После безличных конструкций
It’s difficult to translate from Italian
It was generous of himto offer 1000$.
Would you be so kind as to help me move the sofa?
11) only (неудовлетворительный результат)
She came in only to find Tom had left.
He was the last to come to work
13) for + noun/pronoun
For him to be so rude was unforgivable.
14) после конструкции сущ+глагол в Passive+infinitive
The President is reported to have visited Mexico.
Wild animals are claimed to have the sixth sense.
15) Послег лаголов:
Refuse, advise, promise, decide, agree, seem, offer, afford, learn, expect, happen, intend, choose, invite, ask, allow, hope, order, appear, arrange, attempt, hesitate, fail, prepare, pretend, swear… etc
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1) После глаголов с глагольными операторами
Thank for, be fond of, be good at, be keen on, be interested in, to be disappointed at, to be surprised at, to be responsible for, to prevent from, to consist in, to persist in, to result in, to spend in, to succeed in, to be engaged in, to accuse off, to approve of, to suspect of, to hear of, to think of, to object to.
2) После существительных с послелогами
Astonishment at, plan for, reason for art of, fear of, habit of, way of и др.
3) После конструкций to be used to, to get used to.
I am used to driving at a low speed.
I am getting used to eating healthy food.
4) После глаголов, в которых герундий – часть составного глагольного сказуемого:
To finish, to give up, to keep, to keep on, to go on, to put off, to postpone, to delay, to need, to require, to avoid, to risk, to understand, to appreciate, to suggest, to admit, to consider, to miss, to imagine, to escape, to face, to involve, to practice, to feel.
5) после глаголов to mention, to remember, to mind герундий употребляется в качестве прямого дополнения
6) После фраз: it’s no use, it’s no good, it’s (not) worth, it’s useless, there’s no point in, can’t stand (невыношу, нетерплю), can’t help (немогуудержатьсяот), I’m busy, in addition to, as well as, have a hard/difficult time.
He had difficulty finding his way back.
7) После глаголов, выражающих ОБЩЕЕ предпочтение
Love, like, enjoy, prefer, dislike, don’t mind, don’t fancy, loath (ненавидеть) , adore, hate
НО! Like +to-inf = It’s a good idea
I like to wash my hair every day.
8) После конструкции feel like
I feel like having tea ( яхочу)
9) В конструкции look forward to
I am looking forward to meeting you!
10) После hear , listen, notice, see, watch, которые выражают незаконченное действие.
I saw Kim doing his homework. Я видел как Ким делал свою домашнюю работу.
*сравни с bare inf №4
1) После модальных глаголов
Can, must, should, may
I must go.
You can come in.
2) После глаголов let и make (исключение – пассивный залог)
Let me help you.
Не makes me do all housework.
3) После фраз
You’d better (had) – вам лучше
I’d rather (would) - я скорее.
I’d rather go away.
You’d better take aspirin.
4) hear, listen, see, watch + bare inf – которые выражают законченное действие (вы видели все действие от начала и до конца)
I saw Kim do his work. It took him an hour. Я видел, как Ким сделал свою работу. Это заняло час.
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